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Wednesday, April 29, 2020 | History

2 edition of Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic found in the catalog.

Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Environmental Protection.

Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic

joint hearing before the subcommittee on Environmental Prtotection and Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, first session, October 27, 1987.

by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Environmental Protection.

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Published by U.S. G.P.O., For sale by the Supt. of Docs., Congressional Sales Office, U.S. G.P.O. in Washington .
Written in English

    Places:
  • Antarctica.
    • Subjects:
    • Ozone.,
    • Stratosphere -- Antarctica.

    • Edition Notes

      SeriesS. hrg. ;, 100-385
      ContributionsUnited States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances.
      Classifications
      LC ClassificationsKF26 .E647 1987s
      The Physical Object
      Paginationiii, 171 p. :
      Number of Pages171
      ID Numbers
      Open LibraryOL2148448M
      LC Control Number88601093

      The ozone hole should soon start to diminish because of this decline. We demonstrate a parametric model of ozone hole area that is based upon a new algorithm for estimating chlorine and bromine levels over Antarctica and late spring Antarctic stratospheric temperatures. This model explains 95% of the ozone hole area's variance. Antarctic ozone hole grows before beginning recovery The ozone hole, located in the Antarctic, is doing what it's supposed to, and that's good news. Ozone depletion consists of two related events observed since the late s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere (the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions. The latter phenomenon is referred to as the ozone are also springtime polar tropospheric ozone depletion.   The Antarctic ozone hole's recovery is running late. According to a new NASA study, the full return of the protective ozone over the South Pole will take nearly 20 years longer than scientists.


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Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic by United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Environment and Public Works. Subcommittee on Environmental Protection. Download PDF EPUB FB2

Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic: joint hearing before the Subcommittees on Environmental Protection and Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, first session, Octo Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic: joint hearing before the subcommittees on Environmental Prtotection and Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, first session, Octo The ozone hole was first detected over Antarctica when scientists compared the amount of ozone found in the early s with measurements dating back to The ozone hole forms each year when there is a sharp decline (currently up to 60%) in the total ozone over most of Antarctica for a period of about two months during September and October.

The Antarctic Ozone Hole is an annual springtime event above Earth's frozen, southernmost continent. Man-made CFCs, naturally occurring Polar.

From September 21 to 30,the average area of the ozone hole was the largest ever observed, at million square miles. A little over a week later, instruments recorded the lowest concentrations of ozone ever observed over Antarctica, making the ozone hole the deepest it had ever been.

Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittees on Environmental Protection and Hazardous Wastes and Toxic Substances of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, Octo   The false-color view of the monthly-averaged total ozone over the Antarctic pole.

The blue and purple colors are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone. Calendar A week begins with Sunday.

Fainter images are shown in the previous and following months. “The ozone hole over the Antarctic is gradually filling up,” Haigh says. “So, it is getting a little bit less severe. So, that's the good news and the atmosphere responded as we expected.

The "ozone hole" is an area where the amount of ozone in the upper atmosphere is much lower than normal. Measurements from satellite-based instruments show that this area of very low ozone concentration has developed over Antarctica every year since about So far inthe size and depth of the ozone hole has been slightly below the average for tolikely because of warmer temperatures in the stratosphere over the far southern hemisphere.

However, even slight changes in the meteorology of the region this month could affect the rate of depletion of ozone and how large an area the. In fact there is (or was) an Ozone hole over the Arctic too.

It just wasn't as severe and was not observed until after it had been seen in the Antarctic. It wasn't as large because the atmosphere doesn't get nearly as cold high Implications of the findings of the expedition to investigate the ozone hole over the Antarctic book the arctic as it does over Antarctica.

The huge hole in Earth's protective ozone layer reached its maximum this year in September, and this year NASA said it was million square miles wide.

The. The polar ozone holes are areas of lower concentration of stratospheric ozone that form over the Antarctic and the Arctic due to human activities. Ozone depleting substances containing chlorine and bromine atoms are released to the atmosphere through human activity, for example, through the use of aerosols and from refrigeration and air.

The antarctic ozone hole is an area of the antarctic stratosphere in which the recent (since about ) ozone levels have dropped to as low as 33% of their pre values. The ozone hole occurs during the antarctic spring, from September to early December, as strong westerly wind start to circulate around the continent and create an.

Reduced ozone can mean increased exposure to UV, which can damage the eyes and skin of humans and animals. After reading background information about the causes and dangers of the ozone hole, students download and examine satellite images that show ozone levels in the atmosphere above the Antarctic over an eight-year period.

inNASA satellite data showed that the Antarctic ozone hole was the largest on record, covering 27 million square kilometers; researchers in found that increased ultraviolet light passing through the hole damages the DNA of icefish, an Antarctic fish lacking hemoglobin; ozone depletion earlier was shown to harm one-celled Antarctic.

While the ozone hole has been considered by some as a solved problem, in fact its recovery is still many decades away and the effects and interactions of ozone depletion on climate change are just. The success of this strategy is shown by the global (60 • N to 60 • S) column ozone no longer declining, with small increases of % per decade since reported [37] and signs of the.

The ozone hole was virtually gone by late-October, one of its earliest disappearances since Comparatively, the Antarctic ozone hole was over million km squared ( million square miles), larger than the entire area of North America including the U.S., Canada and Mexico combined. Antarctic ozone depletion is known to affect surface climate in Antarctica and over southern mid-latitudes but incorporating the required stratospheric chemistry into a GCM (i.e.

to make a CCM) adds a lot of complexity to the GCM making it far more expensive to run. Scientists had previously estimated that the Antarctic ozone hole would recover in approximately New findings now show that the Antarctic ozone hole will fully recover 18 year later in approximately The Antarctic ozone hole is a massive loss of ozone that Cited by: The ozone hole is the region over Antarctica with total ozone of Dobson Units or lower.

This map shows the ozone hole on October 4, The data were acquired by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA’s Aura satellite. In the early s, scientists began to realize that CFCs were creating a thin spot—a hole—in the ozone layer over Antarctica every spring. This series of satellite images shows the ozone hole on the day of its maximum depth each year from through Author: Rebecca Lindsey.

1 1 The Impact of Stratospheric Ozone Hole Recovery on 2 Antarctic Climate 3 Judith Perlwitz,1,2 4 Steven Pawson,3 5 Ryan Fogt,2 6 J. Eric Nielsen, 3 7 William Neff2 8 1Cooperative Institute for.

A "hole" in the ozone layer was first discovered over _____. Antarctica Given the relationship between altitude and atmospheric pressure, the pressure at 20 kilometers above the surface is ________.

The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole The first decreases in Antarctic total ozone were observed in the early s over research stations located on the Antarctic continent.

The measurements were made with ground-based Dobson spectropho-tometers (see box in Q5). The observations showed unusually low total overhead ozone during the lateFile Size: 80KB. Unusual behaviour of the Antarctic ozone hole Since the mids, dramatic episodes of stratospheric ozone depletion have been observed each spring over Antarctica.

Within these so-called 'ozone hole' events, total column ozone levels have been reduced by up to. The ozone hole is a severe depletion of the ozone layer above Antarctica that was first detected in the s. The Antarctic ozone hole forms and expands during the Southern Hemisphere spring (August and September) because of the high levels of chemically active forms of chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere.

Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole Formation Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Hole from CHEM at American University of Beirut. The rapid warming of the Antarctic Peninsula, which occurred from the earlys to the late s, has paused.

Stabilisation of the ozone hole along with natural climate variability were. Ozone is Earth’s natural sunscreen, shielding life from dangerous solar ultraviolet radiation.

Human-produced chemicals in our atmosphere—such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), used for many years as refrigerants and in aerosol spray cans—have depleted the Earth’s ozone layer. Scientists first recognized the potential for harmful effects of CFCs on ozone in the early s.

ozone hole is caused as a result of the interaction of CFCs, sunlight, and the ice clouds that form in that special region of the Earth. CSD has played leading roles in the key international field campaigns that have led to this and other findings related to the ozone hole and, more generally, the ozone layer.

Figure 1. The ozone hole. (a) Ground-based measurements (black dots) of the October mean total ozone above the British Antarctic Survey’s Halley Research Station at 76° S, 27° W (black dot in plot below) reveal ozone decreases from the s through the s.

An analysis of the data up to (vertical line) first discovered the ozone hole. 3 by: 3. The Antarctic ozone hole can be defined as the region enclosed by the DU (Dobson units, defined in Fig in the book)). The area of this region (shown in Fig (b)) continued to increase slightly in (white line in Fig 2), starting earlier in the year and lasting later than can be seen that the size of the hole normally peaks in the end of September, when the Sun rises.

Recent observations by Farman et al.1 reveal remarkable depletions in the total atmospheric ozone content in Antarctica. The observed total ozone decreased smoothly during the. The British Antarctic Survey scientist Joe Farman, who helped identify the "hole" in the ozone layer over the southern pole, has died.

Dr Farman. The Origin of the Ozone Hole – Natural or Anthropological James A. Marusek 24 February Introduction The Earth is surrounded by a thin layer of ozone in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere) about 25 kilometers above the Earth's surface.

Ozone is a minor constituent of the stratosphere ( ppm). Ozone and oxygenFile Size: KB. Anyone directly under or close to the hole in the ozone layer would experience the negative effects, but luckily the hole opened up over the Antarctic where it would do the least amount of.

Ozone layer is healing, scientists say A new study has found that the ozone hole over Antarctica has shrunk by million square miles, or about half the area of the contiguous U.S.

NASA/Goddard. The Antarctic Ozone Hole is an annual springtime event above Earth's frozen, southernmost continent. Manmade CFCs, naturally occurring Polar Stratospheric Clouds, and the return of sunlight set off incredible destruction of the protective Ozone Layer.

The Antarctic ozone hole did not cause global there is a connection between climate and the annual thin spot that forms each spring in Earth’s UV-blocking ozone layer: colder winter temperatures tend to lead to larger ozone holes.

The maps at right demonstrate the general connection. The top map shows the average stratospheric ozone concentration from Septemberthe week.Every year, thousands of scientists come to Antarctica for research.

For a dozen days in January, in the middle of the chilly Antarctic summer, the Associated Press, including photographer Natacha.The Antartic Ozone Hole A hole in the ozone layer, covering an area larger than the Antarctic continent, was discovered in by Joe Farman and his colleagues on the British Antarctic Survey.

They discovered a general thinning over the whole globe - a 3% decrease sincebut with greater depletions in middle and higher northern latitudes.